Fundamental Rights ( Important for APSC)

Articles 12-35 within the framework of the Indian Constitution are dedicated to the elaboration and safeguarding of Fundamental Rights. These Fundamental Rights, often referred to as human rights, are a set of essential entitlements granted to the citizens of India. The Constitution unequivocally asserts the inviolability of these rights, emphasizing their utmost significance in upholding the democratic and egalitarian principles of the nation

Historical Background of indian constitution ( Important for APSC)

The historical background of the Indian Constitution has deep roots in the era of British colonial rule in India, spanning two distinct phases: Company rule and Crown rule. Company rule was characterized by the dominance of the British East India Company in governing India. However, this period was marked by increasing discontent and culminated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which prompted the British Imperial Crown to assume direct control over the administration of the country.

High Court ( Important for APSC)

The High Court, often considered the apex judicial authority within a state, serves as an instrumental component of the Indian legal system. Following the Supreme Court of India, it holds the distinction of being the nation’s second-highest court. India boasts a network of 25 High Courts, strategically distributed across the length and breadth of the country, each contributing significantly to the administration of justice.

Monsoon (Important topics for APSC)

The term ‘monsoon’ finds its roots in the Arabic word ‘mawsim’ which translates to ‘season.’ Monsoons are a fascinating meteorological phenomenon characterized by the cyclic nature of winds, orchestrated by the changing seasons. As the seasons transition, these winds undergo a reversal in direction. This inherent periodicity defines monsoons as winds governed by a rhythm.

Cyclones Anticyclones (Important for APSC)

Cyclones Anticyclones emerge as a result of perturbations in the atmospheric conditions surrounding areas of low pressure, characterized by swift and often forceful air circulation. These phenomena give rise to intense storms and adverse climatic manifestations. Notably, cyclonic motion takes on an anticlockwise pattern in the Northern Hemisphere and a clockwise configuration in the Southern Hemisphere.

Atmosphere ( Important notes for UPSC)

At the heart of Earth’s intricate interdependent physical systems lies the atmosphere, an extraordinary ensemble of gases that plays a crucial role in shaping our planet’s dynamics. This vast gaseous envelope envelops not only our home but also other celestial bodies, giving rise to a fascinating realm of atmospheric science.

Climate of India (Important notes for APSC)

The climate consists of a diverse range of meteorological circumstances extending over an extensive geographical expanse and diverse topography, posing challenges to overarching summarizations. The accumulated typical weather patterns in a specific location spanning an extended duration (30 years or more) are denoted as the climate.

How to crack APSC exam

The APSC Examination is a big attraction for many young people in Assam. It offers them a chance at a good future. Becoming a part of the bureaucracy isn’t just a dream; it’s a way to get a respected job that comes with power, recognition, and importance. It also lets people help their community. 

Asura Ali Treaty , Ghilajarigmaj Treaty

In an effort to pacify the recurrent clashes in Assam, the Ahom Kingdom and the Mughal Empire achieved a significant breakthrough in February 1639 through the Ghilajarigmaj Treaty. Referred to as the ‘Treaty of Asurar Ali,’ this landmark agreement marked a crucial moment. Leading the negotiations for the Ahom Kingdom was Momai Tamuli Barbaruh, who engaged with Allah Yar Khan, the Mughal representative.

Bakhtiyar Khilji’s Invasion on Kamrup (Medieval)

Bakhtiyar Khilji’s infamous legacy reverberates through history due to his brutal and fanatical actions during the Invasion on Kamrup. With relentless ferocity, he devastated significant parts of India, inflicting irreparable damage upon Indian civilization. His ruthless campaign involved looting, pillaging, and the desecration of temples, leaving a trail of destruction. Notably, he even targeted the ancient Indian university, Nalanda, marking a dark chapter in the Invasion on Kamrup’s history.

ASSAM HISTORY (Important topic for APSC)

Assam’s history is characterized by a remarkable confluence of people from the east, west, south, and north, blending the Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman (Sino-Tibetan), Tai, and Indo-Aryan cultures. Throughout the centuries, the region experienced invasions, yet it remained free from becoming a vassal or colony under external powers until the third Burmese invasion in 1821.

POLITY: Co-operative societies ( Important topics for APSC)

Co-operative societies have a long history of assisting in the socioeconomic growth of local communities all around the world. These organisations prioritise group interests over individual interests since they are founded on the cooperative, democratic, and solidaristic tenets. Co-operatives have become significant actors in a number of industries, including agriculture, finance, retail, and housing, with an aim to empower members and meet their varied needs.

POLITY: Panchayati raj ( Important topics for APSC)

The decentralised system of local self-government known as Panchayati Raj is a crucial component of India’s democratic system. Panchayati Raj, which is codified in the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992, aims to achieve effective grassroots development while empowering local communities. The relevance of decentralised decision-making and community involvement in governance has been recognised as the Panchayati Raj concept has developed through time.

POLITY: Emergency provisions ( Important topic for APSC)

Constitutional emergency clauses give governments the authority to deal with extraordinary situations that threaten a country’s stability, security, or integrity. The notion of emergency provisions will be thoroughly examined in this article, including its constitutional foundation, the many forms of emergencies, the powers granted to the government in such situations, and the protections in place to defend fundamental rights and democratic principles.

POLITY: Inter-state relations (Important topics for APSC)

In a federal system of government, where authority is shared between the federal government and state governments, interstate ties play a pivotal role. Inter-state relations encompass coordination, cooperation, and dispute resolution among states within a nation, forming an intricate web of connections. This essay delves into the dynamics of interstate relations, shedding light on its key attributes, objectives, and significance.

POLITY: Basic Structure and Amendment of constitution

The foundation of a country’s legal system is its constitution, which also serves to safeguard fundamental rights and provide the framework for government. Understanding a constitution’s fundamental design and amendment procedure is crucial for appreciating how stable, flexible, and effective a nation’s legal system is. We shall go deeply into the intricate details of a constitution’s fundamental construction and the procedure for amending one in this extensive post. This article  will lead you through the fascinating world of constitutional principles and the dynamics of amendment, whether you are a law student, a curious citizen, or an enthusiast seeking information.

POLITY: State Legislature

Democracy is thriving in India both at the national and state levels thanks to the State Legislature. The State Legislature, which is made up of elected legislators, is essential for formulating policies, passing legislation, and assuring local governance. It is a crucial institution that engages local communities in government, empowering citizens.

Assam Direct Recruitment Examination Grade 4 – Exam Details, Notification, Exam Pattern, Syllabus, Recommended Books, Exam Date 

Assam Direct Recruitment Commission, recently established to fulfill CM Himanta Biswa Sarma’s promise of providing 1 lakh jobs in Assam, allows candidates to apply for all eligible posts across various departments through a single combined application. No more multiple online form fill-ups will be necessary. Admit Cards, Results, and Merit Lists will also be published together in a consolidated manner.

Assam Direct Recruitment Examination Grade 3 – Exam Details, Notification, Exam Pattern, Syllabus, Recommended Books, Exam Date 

Assam Direct Recruitment Commission, recently established to fulfill CM Himanta Biswa Sarma’s promise of providing 1 lakh jobs in Assam, allows candidates to apply for all eligible posts across various departments through a single combined application. No more multiple online form fill-ups will be necessary. Admit Cards, Results, and Merit Lists will also be published together in a consolidated manner.

Indian Physiography: A Confluence of Challenges and Innovations in Transport Infrastructure

India has a unique set of opportunities and problems in the construction of a strong and effective transport infrastructure due to its varied and wide physiography. The country’s diverse geographic features, which vary from the untamed Himalayan mountains to the rich Gangetic plains and the coastal regions, call for creative solutions to enable seamless connection and economic prosperity.

Indian Physiography: Islands

Contrasting with the serene allure of islands, the Indo-Gangetic Plains, popularly recognized as the Great Plains of India, emerge as a sprawling and fertile agricultural expanse. Stretching across northern India, this vast plain takes shape from the rich alluvial deposits of the mighty Indus and Ganges-Brahmaputra river systems.

Indian Physiography: Indo-Gangetic Plains

The Indo-Gangetic Plains, also known as the Great Plains of India, form one of the world’s most extensive and fertile agricultural regions. Spanning across northern India, this vast plain is formed by the alluvial deposits of the mighty Indus and Ganges-Brahmaputra river systems. The Indo-Gangetic Plains have played a pivotal role in shaping the course of Indian civilization, providing abundant resources and serving as the agricultural heartland of the country.

Indian Physiography: Coastal Plains

India, a land of diverse geographical features, boasts an exquisite tapestry of landscapes. Among its captivating landforms, the coastal plains stand out as one of the most prominent and culturally significant features. Stretching along the vast coastline of the Indian subcontinent, these plains encompass a plethora of natural wonders, captivating ecosystems, and a rich tapestry of human history. In this article, we embark on a journey to explore the beauty and significance of the Indian coastal plains.

The Peninsular Plateau: A Geographical Marvel of India

The Peninsular Plateau, a remarkable geographical feature of India, is a vast elevated region located in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent. Also known as the Deccan Plateau, it is characterised by its expansive and rugged terrain, diverse landscapes, and unique geological formations. In this article, we will explore the physiography of the Peninsular Plateau, its geological history, major components, prominent features, and the significant role it plays in shaping the natural and cultural heritage of India.

Indian Physiography: Exploring the Enchanting Northern Plains

Indian Physiography, An enormous area of level, rich land is included in the Northern Plains of India, a noteworthy geographical characteristic of the Indian subcontinent. These plains, which straddle numerous states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal, are created by the alluvial deposits of significant rivers like the Ganges and Brahmaputra and its tributaries.

Oceanography : Tides

Tides, the rhythmic rise and fall of sea levels, have fascinated humanity for centuries. These gravitational phenomena, caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth’s oceans, play a fundamental role in shaping coastal landscapes, influencing marine ecosystems, and impacting various human activities.

Oceanography: Ocean salinity

The concentration of dissolved salts in saltwater is referred to as salinity, and it is important for both the physical and biological activities that take place in the seas. We shall examine the significance of ocean salinity, its measurement, the elements that affect it, and its effects on the climate, marine life, and global ocean circulation in this article.

Oceanography:  Ocean Currents

The constant and deliberate motions of seawater within ocean basins are referred to as ocean currents.  They are influenced by a number of variables, including wind, temperature, salinity, and the rotation of the Earth. Ocean currents have a significant impact on climate patterns, marine ecosystems, and even human activities by dispersing heat, nutrients, and dissolved gases. Ocean currents are continuous, directed movements of seawater within the ocean basins.  

Exploring Landforms: A Comprehensive Guide to Earth’s Diverse Geomorphic Features

Guide to Earth’s Diverse Geomorphic Features, Landforms are the remarkable physical features that shape the Earth’s surface, ranging from towering mountains to sprawling plains and winding rivers. In this article, we embark on an exciting journey through the fascinating world of landforms. We will delve into the various types of landforms found across the globe, exploring their formation processes, characteristics, and significance. Join us as we unravel the secrets behind these captivating features and gain a deeper understanding of the dynamic forces that have shaped our planet’s diverse landscapes.

Plate Tectonic Theory: The Dynamic Earth’s Geomorphological Evolution

Plate tectonic theory revolutionised the field of Geomorphological Evolution by providing a comprehensive framework to understand the dynamic nature of our planet’s surface. In this article, we delve into the intriguing world of plate tectonics, exploring how the movement and interaction of Earth’s lithospheric plates shape landforms, influence volcanic activity, trigger earthquakes, and contribute to the evolution of our planet.

Exploring the Internal Structure of Earth: A Geomorphological Perspective

Understanding the internal structure of the Earth is essential for comprehending the geological processes that shape our planet’s surface. Geomorphological Perspective, the study of landforms and surface processes, relies on knowledge of the Earth’s internal composition and structure to explain the formation of various landscapes. In this article, we will delve into the intricate layers that make up the Earth’s internal structure, exploring the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core.

All you need to know about Geomorphology

Geomorphology, the study of Earth’s landforms and their formation processes, is a crucial topic for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants seeking to excel in their geological knowledge. This article aims to provide an insightful overview of geomorphology, its significance in the UPSC examination, and how understanding landforms can help in answering questions related to the Earth’s dynamic geological processes

Why is the UPSC Tough for Average Students? Unveiling the Reasons Why IAS is Considered the Toughest Exam in India

One of the most difficult exams in India is the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination. Many hopeful civil officials ponder whether the UPSC is too difficult for typical pupils. In this article, we examine the reasons why the IAS (Indian Administrative Service) test is regarded as challenging for typical students and the elements that go into making it the nation’s toughest exam.

APSC CCE Exam Pattern, Syllabus & Selection Process

Knowing the exam pattern is absolutely crucial for aspiring candidates preparing for the APSC (Assam Public Service Commission) exam. It acts as the key to unlocking a successful preparation strategy. By understanding the structure of the exam, including the number of papers, marks distribution, and duration, candidates can approach their studies with confidence and convenience. Being well-informed about the APSC exam pattern allows candidates to optimise their efforts and maximise their chances of success.


The APSC Mains Exam conducted by the Assam Public Service Commission holds significant importance in selecting candidates for various government posts in Assam. Consisting of six papers, one of which is the Essay paper, this examination plays a crucial role in the overall assessment of candidates’ abilities and skills.

Effective Strategies to Prepare for Current Affairs in UPSC

Strategies to Prepare for Current Affairs in UPSC , Preparing for current affairs is a critical aspect of the Civil Services Exam, and aspirants often ponder the most effective strategies for success. Given the fluctuating weightage assigned to this section each year, there is no definitive formula to follow. However, candidates can enhance their chances by adopting a comprehensive preparation strategy that involves utilizing reliable sources of current affairs and anticipating the diverse range of questions that may be asked.

Detailed Instructions for Applying for the UPSC Exam

The UPSC is responsible for organizing a range of examinations, with the IAS Exam being particularly popular among the younger population of the country. Each year, hundreds of thousands of candidates apply for this exam, including numerous freshers. It is crucial to fill out the UPSC Application form accurately, as any failure to meet the criteria or provide incorrect information can result in the cancellation of one’s candidature at any stage of the examination process.

Youth Icon Safin Hasan: India’s Youngest IPS Officer Making Waves with Unprecedented Achievements

At the remarkable age of 22, Safin Hasan emerged as a trailblazer by cracking the prestigious UPSC examination in 2018. His outstanding achievement secured him the distinguished title of the youngest Indian Police Service (IPS) Officer. Securing the 570th rank in the Civil Services examination, Safin Hasan’s journey catapulted him into the esteemed position of Assistant Superintendent of Police in India’s Jamnagar district on December 23, 2019.

India’s Youngest IAS Officers: Setting Records and Inspiring Generations

Some of the best minds in the nation are drawn to the prestigious Indian Administrative Service (IAS), which is a civil service. Throughout the years, there have been outstanding people who not only passed the fiercely tough IAS test but also earned the distinction of being India’s youngest IAS officers. These trailblazers have broken down barriers connected to age and left a lasting impression on the country.

Eligibility Criteria for UPSC Examinations ( 2023)

In order to find candidates for civil services, such as the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), and Indian Foreign Service (IFS), among others, the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) holds a number of important tests. Knowing the eligibility requirements established by the commission is crucial if you want to work in the civil service and want to take the UPSC exams in 2023. The eligibility criteria for UPSC examinations in 2023 will be thoroughly reviewed in this article.

Best Newspapers for IAS Aspirants

In this article, we will explore the best newspapers for IAS aspirants, taking into account their comprehensive coverage, quality journalism, and relevance to the UPSC examination. Aspiring to become an IAS officer requires staying informed about current affairs.

Unveiling India’s First Female IPS Officer: Pioneering Women in Law Enforcement

In India’s history, there is a notable pioneer who broke down gender stereotypes and became the nation’s first female IPS officer. Generations of aspirant women in law enforcement have been motivated by her trailblazing accomplishments and unshakable spirit. This article explores the life and achievements of the trailblazer who opened the door for a great number of people to follow in her footsteps.

How to Start UPSC Preparation from Zero Level?

UPSC Preparation from Scratch, Every year, a vast number of aspirants are captivated by the allure of serving the nation as bureaucrats through the UPSC Civil Services Examination (CSE). However, the statistics surrounding this prestigious exam reveal a stark reality. With a staggering number of applicants ranging between 900,000 to 1,000,000, the competition is undeniably fierce. Out of this massive pool of candidates, only a mere 10,000 to 15,000 individuals manage to pass the exam. 

Recommended Indian Economy books for UPSC Exam Preparation

Preparing for the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) test requires a thorough understanding of various subjects, including Indian economics. To excel in the General Studies Paper 1 of the Civil Services Exam Prelims, which holds significant weightage, it is essential to have a solid grasp of economic and social development topics. Here, we present a curated list of the best UPSC economics books, as recommended by toppers, to help aspirants prepare effectively for the UPSC Exam 2024.